Tuesday 28 July 2015

Costul unui km de autostrada in alte tari !

La ei realizate
La noi desenate

Mult timp m-am intrebat cit costa prin alte parti autostrazile, si ce ceva timp atum material pentru o informare cat mai clara si detaliata.
Va invit sa aruncati o privire si apoi sa tragem o concluzie.

la noi :
După ce s-au plătit 20 de mil. euro pe kilometru de autostradă americanilor de la Bechtel, acum un kilometru poate să coste 3,5 mil. euro ! Deci mita pentru A.Nastase era de 6 ori!! mai mare decit constructia in sine.

Sursa: Dupa-ce-s-au-platit-20-de-mil-euro-pe-kilometru-de-autostrada-americanilor-de-la-bechtel-acum-un-kilometru-poate-sa-coste-3-5-mil-euro
In alte tari (si nu-mi cereti sa traduc pt ca oricine intelege 6,3 mil Eur/Km :p ) :
Some examples from Poland are below. Prices are very variable.

S2/S79 south bypass of Warsaw (3 lanes expressway, asphalt, urban terrain) 8.9 km - 29.3 mil EUR/km
A1 Pyrzowice - Piekary Sl.(motorway, 2 lanes, asphalt, plain terrain) 16 km - 26 mil EUR/km
S69 Bielsko-Biala - Zywiec (2 lanes expressway, mountains but no tunnels, asphalt) 15.6 km - 11.6 mil EUR/km
A1 Piątek-Stryków (2 lanes motorway, asphalt, plain terrain) 21 km - 6.3 mil EUR/km
S8 Syców - Kępno (2 lanes expressway, asphalt, plain terrain) 15.3 km - 4.9 mil EUR/km
A4 Zgorzelec - Krzyżowa (motorway, 2 lanes, concrete, plain terrain) 51.4 km - 4.6 mil EUR/Km

The cost to construct one lane-mile of a typical 4-lane divided highway can range from $3.1 million to
$9.1 million per lane-mile in rural areas depending on terrain type and,
$4.9 million to $19.5 million in urban areas depending on population size.

Croatia average is some 8-9 mil. + TVA ~ 11 mil €/km.

In Bulgaria currently under construction are: Trakiya Hoghway (three stretches) first stretch - constructor is bulgarian
company Trace with price 2,217 mln.euro/km , second stretch constructor is greek company Actor with price 1,9 mln.euro/km.,
third stretch constructor is bulgarian Holding Roads with price 2,247 mln.euro/km. The other highway under construction in
Bulgaria is Maritsa (two stretches) first stretch - constructor is Chimetisti Ravena Italy with price 2.12 mln.euro/km,
second stretch price 1,82mln.euro/km. - constructor Holding Roads
(all the prices excl VAT).
the highest price of motorway construction was of A5 Lyulin with 13 km tunnel, which was about 9.7-9.8 mln euros/km
The tunnel itself cost 124m €/km.

Spain: from 3,10 to 13,35 million €/km.

Road costs (average prices):
Conventional road: € 3M/km. Motorway: € 4M/km.
Over/underpasses: € 700/m2.
Maintenance (annual cost):
Secondary road: € 6,000/km.
Main road: € 9,000/km .
High-capacity road: € 18,000/km.
Motorway: € 42,000/km.
Pothole repair: Between € 35,000/km - € 65,000/km.
Cleaning: € 45/km

Information cost:
Integrated management systems which collect traffic information: from € 40,000 to 140,000.
Data collection cameras: € 6,000.
Weather Station: € 32,000.
Electronic Signpost: € 42,000.
Laser Radar: € 40,000.

Signs cost:
Replacing a demolished sign: € 145 to 300.
Sign cleaning (removing graffiti): € 45-75.
For example, the cost of switching signals to 110 km/h which was carried on last year was estimated at € 250,000 (about € 40/sign).
Accidents cost:
Emergency equipment mobilization € 772/unit.
Daily cost of maintaining each mobile Intensive Care Unit: € 3,100.
Mobilization of a helicopter (for rural areas which are difficult to reach by other means): € 3,642.
Activate a medical helicopter: € 6,800.
Fire fighters: € 3,000.
Subsequent cleaning of the road: € 600.

Some samples of recent cases in Finland:

3/E12 Tampere west bypass, open 2009, upgrade 1+1 to 2+2, most exits rebuilt, double bridge over Lake Pyhäjärvi: 21 km, 114 MEUR, 5.4 MEUR/km.
1/E18 Lohja-Muurla, open 2009, 2+2, challenging terrain, 7 twin-tube tunnels total length 5.7 km, 75 bridges, 8 exits, animal fence: 51 km, 330 MEUR, 6.5 MEUR/km. Public Private Partnership model (PPP).
7/E18 Koskenkylä-Kotka, under construction, open 2014. 17 km upgrade 1+1 to 2+2, 34 km new 2+2 motorway. 6 new exits, 68 bridges, one short twin-tube tunnel, telematics, animal fence, some upgrade on current motorway in Kotka. 51 km, 340 MEUR, 6.7 MEUR/km. PPP Model.
51 Espoonlahti-Kirkkonummi, under construction, open 2012, 2+2 replacing the current 1+1 road in the same aligment, new parallel local roads, 3 new exits, major upgrade to one exit. 10 km, 80 MEUR, 8 MEUR/km.
6 Lappeenranta-Imatra, open 2012, 2+2 "almost motorway", with middle barrier, replacing the old 1+1 road in the same alignment. 6 new and 9 upgraded exits, 35 km animal fence, illumination, 22 km noise barriers, somewhat challenging crossing with Saimaa Canal. 48 km, 177 MEUR, 3.7 EUR/km.
100 between 3/E12 and 45, Helsinki, "Ring Zero of Helsinki", open 2009. Replacing existing 1+1 street with 2+2 road, partly 3+3. 4 exits, one twin-tube tunnel under 3/E12, 700 m 25 bridges, crosses two main railways. Construction under heavy traffic: 35,000 vehicles and 1000 trains daily. Full of existing infrastructure. 3.3 km, 100 MEUR, 30 MEUR/km.
Construction cost only, with the exception of case Road 51 where planning cost partly included in the contract.

In Kosovo there are built (completed) only 38 km of motorways, and under construction 22 more kilometers, that will be completed soon. Price is almost 8 mil Euro/ 1 km.

In India, construction of one km of a 4 lane separated highway generally costs around $2-$2.5M in normal terrain and around $3-3.5M in difficult terrain.
Expressway costs are generally 150% of normal highway costs

European highway construction costs evaluated
A STUDY of highway construction costs in eight European countries highlights Austria as the most expensive.
The report says that highways in Austria cost €12.87 mil/km.
The next most expensive country is Hungaryat €11.21 mil/km, followed by Slovakia at €9.56 million/km and then the Czech Republic at €8.86 million/km.
At the other end of the spectrum, costs in Denmark are only €5.89 mil/km, in Croatia €6.682 million/km, in Slovenia €7.29 million/km and in Germany €8.24 million/km.

Terrain can increase costs significantly and construction of highways in mountainous terrain is most expensive in Germany at €25.99 million/km followed by Austria with €24.97 million/km, with the Czech Republic, Slovenia and Croatia following in descending order.

UK has always been behind other developed countries when it comes to road building, and our infrastructure is decades behind in development. Nevertheless, here is a broad range of costs. All figures taken from the Highways Agency website, the government body that controls motorways and trunk roads in England.
New Build
A1(M) in North Yorkshire (dual three lane motorway with hard shoulders through flat open countryside) - £16.5mil/km (EUR 20.5mil/km)
A46 in Nottinghamshire (dual two lane road in fairly flat open countryside) - £13.5mil/km (EUR 17mil/km)
Widening schemes
M27 Southampton (dual three lane motorway with full hard shoulders widened to dual four lane motorway with discontinuous hard shoulders at bridges, no bridges rebuilt) - £13million/km (EUR16million/km)
A23 West Sussex (dual two lane road realigned and widened to dual three lane road) - £20mil/km (EUR25mil/km)
Variable speed limits and hard shoulder running
M6 J5-8 Birmingham - £6.5million/km (EUR8million/km)
M1 Bedfordshire (including replacement of one bridge and remodelling of one junction) - £20-24million/km (EUR 25-30mil/km)
Variable speed limits and hard shoulder running are the preferred option to widening, and widening is the preferred option to new build. As you can see though, spending money on improving existing roads can cost the same or more than building new roads, so the most cost effective way of creating capacity is still to build new roads. New road is almost as taboo as the word motorway though.

Costul real este undeva inte 3-7 mil de Eur / Km. Daca este teren muntos se dubleaza.
Tunel dar sa nu visam .. este foarte scump 124m €/km.

Acum stim cind este un pret umflat .. ca la A.Nastase-Behtel ..  de 600% .. hmmm .. si eu naiv credeam ca spaga e 5-10% :))

Asa a fost lasatã tara fara investii in infrastructura, pentru ca orice guvern a fost, a cerut spaga mai mult decit costul efectiv al obiectivului. De aceea sunt si constructorii la DNA sau arestati. Firmele serioase nu se pretau la magarii pentru ca orice procuror poate costul real si apoi ii aresteaza. Toti cei care s-au riscat, se credeau "eterni", de neatins, daca-si permiteau sa vorbeasca la telefon in clar, este evident ca nu le era frica de nimeni, "aveau spatele asigurat"...

Astept sa vad ca la o licitati de autostrada din romania va cistiga o firma/consortiu german, Finlandez, Spaniol ...  si prezinta transparent costurile.
Sper ca nepotii nostri sa vada asta !

Resources click to view :
a) Europe : 2008_road_infrastructure_costs_and_revenues.pdf

b) Road pricing in Europe.pdf

No comments:

Post a Comment